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Speech/Language Disorders Database

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Persistent Developmental Stuttering

The following data points are curated from the literature, and indicate differences between subjects with Persistent Developmental Stuttering and control subjects. Coordinates are in MNI space, and brain labels are as delineated in the text. Click on any column to sort by that column.

Imaging Phenotype XYZ Region Name Effect Description Article Year
BOLD activation differences during nonword listening -33 -9 34 precentral gyrus,  BA 6/4 Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during a nonword speech perception task Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonword listening 41 -13 54 precentral gyrus,  BA 6/4 Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during a nonword speech perception task Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonword listening 3 -13 70 BA 6,  supplementary motor area Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during a nonword speech perception task Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonword listening -37 -39 10 superior temporal gyrus,  BA 41 Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during a nonword speech perception task Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonword listening 42 -37 11 superior temporal gyrus,  BA 41 Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during a nonword speech perception task Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonword listening -46 -63 13 BA 19,  middle temporal gyrus Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during a nonword speech perception task Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonword listening 59 -42 -1 middle temporal gyrus,  BA 21 Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during a nonword speech perception task Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonword listening 45 -67 36 angular gyrus,  BA 39 Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during a nonword speech perception task Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonword listening 31 -79 30 BA 19,  cuneus Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during a nonword speech perception task Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonword listening 3 -11 10 thalamus Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during a nonword speech perception task Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonword listening 15 -57 -16 cerebellum lobule VI Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during a nonword speech perception task Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonspeech listening 49 3 42 BA 6,  middle frontal gyrus Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during a perception task involving nonspeech orofacial and vocal tract sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonspeech listening -31 -9 34 BA 6,  precentral gyrus Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during a perception task involving nonspeech orofacial and vocal tract sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonspeech listening 11 -19 72 BA 6,  supplementary motor area Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during a perception task involving nonspeech orofacial and vocal tract sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonspeech listening -37 -39 10 superior temporal gyrus,  BA 41 Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during a perception task involving nonspeech orofacial and vocal tract sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonspeech listening 39 -37 12 superior temporal gyrus,  BA 41 Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during a perception task involving nonspeech orofacial and vocal tract sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonspeech listening -48 -62 14 BA 19,  middle temporal gyrus Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during a perception task involving nonspeech orofacial and vocal tract sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonspeech listening 59 -43 - middle temporal gyrus,  BA 21 Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during a perception task involving nonspeech orofacial and vocal tract sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonspeech listening 45 -67 36 angular gyrus,  BA 39 Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during a perception task involving nonspeech orofacial and vocal tract sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonspeech listening 3 -11 8 thalamus Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during a perception task involving nonspeech orofacial and vocal tract sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonspeech listening 18 -56 -17 cerebellum lobule VI Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during a perception task involving nonspeech orofacial and vocal tract sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during speech planning -35 -9 34 BA 6,  precentral gyrus Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during a speech planning component of the task paradigm Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during speech planning 37 -13 54 precentral gyrus,  BA 4, 6 Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during a speech planning component of the task paradigm Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during speech planning -1 1 36 cingulate gyrus,  BA 24 Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during a speech planning component of the task paradigm Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during speech planning 39 -63 46 inferior parietal lobe,  BA 7 Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during a speech planning component of the task paradigm Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during speech planning -31 -69 40 BA 19,  precuneus Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during a speech planning component of the task paradigm Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during speech planning 5 -31 10 thalamus Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during a speech planning component of the task paradigm Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during speech planning 21 -71 -25 cerebellum crus 1 Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during a speech planning component of the task paradigm Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during speech planning -13 -61 -20 cerebellum lobule VI Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during a speech planning component of the task paradigm Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonspeech orofacial / vocal tract sound planning -19 -1 44 cingulate gyrus,  BA 24 Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during a non-speech (orofacial, vocal tract sound) planning component of the task paradigm Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonspeech orofacial / vocal tract sound planning 39 -61 46 inferior parietal lobe,  BA 7 Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during a non-speech (orofacial, vocal tract sound) planning component of the task paradigm Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonspeech orofacial / vocal tract sound planning -33 -71 40 BA 19,  precuneus Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during a non-speech (orofacial, vocal tract sound) planning component of the task paradigm Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonspeech orofacial / vocal tract sound planning 47 -19 28 postcentral gyrus,  BA 2 Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during a non-speech (orofacial, vocal tract sound) planning component of the task paradigm Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonspeech orofacial / vocal tract sound planning 3 -11 10 thalamus Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during a non-speech (orofacial, vocal tract sound) planning component of the task paradigm Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonspeech orofacial / vocal tract sound planning 21 -70 -25 cerebellum crus 1 Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during a non-speech (orofacial, vocal tract sound) planning component of the task paradigm Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonspeech orofacial / vocal tract sound planning -23 -59 -24 cerebellum lobule VI Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during a non-speech (orofacial, vocal tract sound) planning component of the task paradigm Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonword production -33 -9 32 BA 6,  precentral gyrus Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during production of nonword speech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonword production 27 -27 62 BA 6,  precentral gyrus Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during production of nonword speech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonword production 9 1 36 cingulate gyrus,  BA 24 Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during production of nonword speech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonword production -55 -31 10 superior temporal gyrus,  BA 42 Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during production of nonword speech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonword production -61 -32 - BA 22,  middle temporal gyrus Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during production of nonword speech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonword production -39 -25 29 inferior parietal lobe,  BA 2, 40 Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during production of nonword speech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonword production -47 -50 22 BA 40,  supramarginal gyrus Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during production of nonword speech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonword production 17 -85 -14 lingual gyrus,  BA 18 Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during production of nonword speech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonword production 17 -41 -38 cerebellar tonsil Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during production of nonword speech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonword production 3 -53 -10 cerebellar vermis Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during production of nonword speech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonword production -41 -17 38 precentral gyrus,  BA 4 Adults who stutter had increased activation relative to controls during production of nonword speech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonword production 48 -9 30 precentral gyrus,  BA 4 Adults who stutter had increased activation relative to controls during production of nonword speech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonword production -11 10 38 cingulate gyrus,  BA 32 Adults who stutter had increased activation relative to controls during production of nonword speech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonword production -7 -3 52 BA 6,  supplementary motor area Adults who stutter had increased activation relative to controls during production of nonword speech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonword production 44 14 -3 BA 47,  inferior frontal gyrus Adults who stutter had increased activation relative to controls during production of nonword speech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonword production -44 -14 5 insula,  BA 13 Adults who stutter had increased activation relative to controls during production of nonword speech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonword production 37 -8 15 insula,  BA 13 Adults who stutter had increased activation relative to controls during production of nonword speech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonword production -35 -29 10 Heschl's gyrus,  BA 41 Adults who stutter had increased activation relative to controls during production of nonword speech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonword production 43 -27 12 Heschl's gyrus,  BA 41 Adults who stutter had increased activation relative to controls during production of nonword speech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonword production 55 -27 5 BA 22,  superior temporal gyrus Adults who stutter had increased activation relative to controls during production of nonword speech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonword production 51 -33 3 BA 22,  middle temporal gyrus Adults who stutter had increased activation relative to controls during production of nonword speech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonword production 51 -31 22 BA 40,  inferior parietal lobe Adults who stutter had increased activation relative to controls during production of nonword speech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonword production -9 -65 12 posterior cingulate gyrus,  BA 17 Adults who stutter had increased activation relative to controls during production of nonword speech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonword production 24 - 8 putamen Adults who stutter had increased activation relative to controls during production of nonword speech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonword production -30 -54 -19 cerebellar culmen Adults who stutter had increased activation relative to controls during production of nonword speech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonspeech sound production -35 -9 34 BA 6,  precentral gyrus Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during production of nonspeech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonspeech sound production 7 -31 66 BA 6,  supplementary motor area Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during production of nonspeech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonspeech sound production -27 49 18 BA 10,  middle frontal gyrus Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during production of nonspeech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonspeech sound production -33 -41 12 superior temporal gyrus,  BA 42 Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during production of nonspeech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonspeech sound production -38 -28 29 inferior parietal lobe,  BA 2/40 Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during production of nonspeech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonspeech sound production 45 -51 44 BA 40,  inferior parietal lobe Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during production of nonspeech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonspeech sound production -49 -49 22 BA 40,  supramarginal gyrus Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during production of nonspeech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonspeech sound production - - - lingual gyrus,  BA 18 Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during production of nonspeech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonspeech sound production 17 -85 -12 lingual gyrus,  BA 18 Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during production of nonspeech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonspeech sound production 3 -11 10 thalamus Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during production of nonspeech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonspeech sound production -1 -51 -10 cerebellar vermis Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during production of nonspeech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonspeech sound production -19 -73 -28 cerebellum crus 1 Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during production of nonspeech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonspeech sound production -21 -69 -26 cerebellum Adults who stutter had decreased activation relative to controls during production of nonspeech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonspeech sound production -41 -17 38 precentral gyrus,  BA 4 Adults who stutter had increased activation relative to controls during production of nonspeech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonspeech sound production 60 -6 20 precentral gyrus,  BA 4 Adults who stutter had increased activation relative to controls during production of nonspeech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonspeech sound production -9 13 40 cingulate gyrus,  BA 32 Adults who stutter had increased activation relative to controls during production of nonspeech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonspeech sound production -39 -21 4 insula,  BA 22 Adults who stutter had increased activation relative to controls during production of nonspeech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonspeech sound production -39 -21 4 insula,  BA 13 Adults who stutter had increased activation relative to controls during production of nonspeech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonspeech sound production 63 -27 6 BA 22,  superior temporal gyrus Adults who stutter had increased activation relative to controls during production of nonspeech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonspeech sound production 51 -35 3 BA 22,  middle temporal gyrus Adults who stutter had increased activation relative to controls during production of nonspeech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonspeech sound production 52 -31 21 BA 13,  inferior parietal lobe Adults who stutter had increased activation relative to controls during production of nonspeech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonspeech sound production 45 -51 44 BA 40,  inferior parietal lobe Adults who stutter had increased activation relative to controls during production of nonspeech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonspeech sound production -23 1 7 putamen Adults who stutter had increased activation relative to controls during production of nonspeech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonspeech sound production 25 2 7 putamen Adults who stutter had increased activation relative to controls during production of nonspeech sounds Chang et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during nonspeech sound production -31 -54 19 cerebellar culmen Adults who stutter had increased activation relative to controls during production of nonspeech sounds Chang et al 2009
Gray Matter Morphometry differences - - - Sylvian fissure Adult subjects with persistent developmental stuttering showed a slight increase in the number of sulci (on average almost one additional sulcus) connecting with the second segment of the right hemisphere Sylvian fissure compared to controls Cykowski et al 2008
Gray Matter Morphometry differences - - - Sylvian fissure A greater number of perisylvian gyral banks were counted in the right hemisphere of adult subjects with persistent developmental stuttering compared with controls Cykowski et al 2008
BOLD activation differences during listening -12 -14 16 thalamus Adults who stutter showed decreased BOLD activation compared with controls during a word listening task De Nil et al 2008
BOLD activation differences during listening - 52 38 superior frontal gyrus Adults who stutter showed decreased BOLD activation compared with controls during a word listening task De Nil et al 2008
BOLD activation differences during listening 6 -40 -10 cerebellum Adults who stutter showed decreased BOLD activation compared with controls during a word listening task De Nil et al 2008
BOLD activation differences during listening 28 -34 18 insula Adults who stutter showed decreased BOLD activation compared with controls during a word listening task De Nil et al 2008
BOLD activation differences during listening -64 -22 - middle temporal gyrus Adults who stutter showed increased BOLD activation compared with controls during a word listening task De Nil et al 2008
BOLD activation differences during listening 42 2 14 Rolandic operculum Adults who stutter showed increased BOLD activation compared with controls during a word listening task De Nil et al 2008
BOLD activation differences during listening 32 22 -2 insula Adults who stutter showed increased BOLD activation compared with controls during a word listening task De Nil et al 2008
BOLD activation differences during listening 48 -36 20 superior temporal gyrus Adults who stutter showed increased BOLD activation compared with controls during a word listening task De Nil et al 2008
BOLD activation differences during listening 54 -2 -14 superior temporal gyrus Adults who stutter showed increased BOLD activation compared with controls during a word listening task De Nil et al 2008
BOLD activation differences during overt word repetition 10 -12 -16 midbrain Adults who stutter showed decreased BOLD activation compared with controls during a single word overt speaking (repetition) task De Nil et al 2008
BOLD activation differences during overt word repetition -34 2 -18 superior temporal gyrus Adults who stutter showed decreased BOLD activation compared with controls during a single word overt speaking (repetition) task De Nil et al 2008
BOLD activation differences during overt word repetition - -20 -22 brainstem Adults who stutter showed decreased BOLD activation compared with controls during a single word overt speaking (repetition) task De Nil et al 2008
BOLD activation differences during overt word repetition 54 6 24 inferior frontal gyrus Adults who stutter showed increased BOLD activation compared with controls during a single word overt speaking (repetition) task De Nil et al 2008
White Matter Morphometry differences 64 -34 21 superior temporal gyrus Increased white matter volume / density in right superior temporal gyrus, including planum temporale, in adults who stutter compared to controls Jäncke et al 2004
White Matter Morphometry differences 66 8 21 inferior frontal gyrus Increased white matter volume / density in right inferior frontal gyrus in adults who stutter compared to controls Jäncke et al 2004
White Matter Morphometry differences 44 48 11 middle frontal gyrus Increased white matter volume / density in right middle frontal gyrus in adults who stutter compared to controls Jäncke et al 2004
White Matter Morphometry differences 30 -28 63 precentral gyrus Increased white matter volume / density in right precentral gyrus in adults who stutter compared to controls Jäncke et al 2004
White Matter Morphometry differences 62 -12 37 precentral gyrus Increased white matter volume / density in right precentral gyrus in adults who stutter compared to controls Jäncke et al 2004
White Matter Morphometry differences - - - Heschl's gyrus Adults who stutter showed a significant rightward asymmetry in white matter volume in an ROI that included Heschl's gyrus and the planum temporale, whereas controls showed no difference Jäncke et al 2004
White Matter Morphometry differences - - - planum temporale Adults who stutter showed a significant rightward asymmetry in white matter volume in an ROI that included Heschl's gyrus and the planum temporale, whereas controls showed no difference Jäncke et al 2004
White Matter Morphometry differences - - - precentral gyrus Adults who stutter showed a significant rightward asymmetry in white matter volume in the precentral gyrus, whereas controls showed no difference Jäncke et al 2004
White Matter Morphometry differences - - - middle frontal gyrus Adults who stutter showed a significant rightward asymmetry in white matter volume in the middle frontal gyrus, whereas controls showed no difference Jäncke et al 2004
White Matter Morphometry differences - - - inferior frontal gyrus Adults who stutter showed a significant rightward asymmetry in white matter volume in the inferior frontal gyrus, whereas controls showed no difference Jäncke et al 2004
Gray Matter Morphometry differences -41 25 28 inferior frontal gyrus,  BA 44 Focal decrease in gray matter volume for adult subjects with persistent stuttering relative to controls. Gray matter volume in left inferior frontal gyrus correlated negatively with stuttering severity. Kell et al 2009
Gray Matter Morphometry differences -47 24 30 inferior frontal gyrus,  BA 44 Focal decrease in gray matter volume for adult subjects who had recovered from stuttering relative to controls Kell et al 2009
Gray Matter Morphometry differences -46 48 6 medial frontal gyrus Focal decrease in gray matter volume for adult subjects with persistent stuttering relative to controls. Result does not survive multiple comparisons correction. Kell et al 2009
Gray Matter Morphometry differences -61 -43 30 supramarginal gyrus Focal decrease in gray matter volume for adult subjects with persistent stuttering relative to controls. Result does not survive multiple comparisons correction. Kell et al 2009
White Matter Fractional Anisotropy differences -22 24 -10 inferior frontal gyrus,  anterior insula Elevated fractional anisotropy (FA) in underlying white matter in adult subjects with persistent stuttering relative to controls. Subjects who recovered from stuttering showed intermediate FA values. Kell et al 2009
White Matter Fractional Anisotropy differences -12 24 -12 orbitofrontal cortex Elevated fractional anisotropy (FA) in underlying white matter in adult subjects with persistent stuttering relative to controls. Subjects who recovered from stuttering showed intermediate FA values. Kell et al 2009
White Matter Fractional Anisotropy differences -23 -59 34 intraparietal sulcus Elevated fractional anisotropy (FA) in underlying white matter in adult subjects with persistent stuttering relative to controls. Kell et al 2009
Differences in BOLD activation level changes for overt vs. covert reading 50 26 38 middle frontal gyrus,  BA 9 Pre-therapy adults with persistent stuttering showed greater BOLD signal change in a comparison of overt to covert reading than did control subjects Kell et al 2009
Differences in BOLD activation level changes for overt vs. covert reading 30 20 56 middle frontal gyrus,  BA 9 Pre-therapy adults with persistent stuttering showed greater BOLD signal change in a comparison of overt to covert reading than did control subjects Kell et al 2009
Differences in BOLD activation level changes for overt vs. covert reading 44 16 48 BA 8,  middle frontal gyrus Pre-therapy adults with persistent stuttering showed greater BOLD signal change in a comparison of overt to covert reading than did control subjects Kell et al 2009
Differences in BOLD activation level changes for overt vs. covert reading 20 34 52 BA 8,  superior frontal gyrus Pre-therapy adults with persistent stuttering showed greater BOLD signal change in a comparison of overt to covert reading than did control subjects Kell et al 2009
Differences in BOLD activation level changes for overt vs. covert reading 4 46 26 BA 8,  posterior frontomesial cortex Pre-therapy adults with persistent stuttering showed greater BOLD signal change in a comparison of overt to covert reading than did control subjects Kell et al 2009
Differences in BOLD activation level changes for overt vs. covert reading 4 32 50 BA 8,  posterior frontomesial cortex Pre-therapy adults with persistent stuttering showed greater BOLD signal change in a comparison of overt to covert reading than did control subjects Kell et al 2009
Differences in BOLD activation level changes for overt vs. covert reading -2 40 8 anterior cingulate,  BA 32 Pre-therapy adults with persistent stuttering showed greater BOLD signal change in a comparison of overt to covert reading than did control subjects Kell et al 2009
Differences in BOLD activation level changes for overt vs. covert reading 18 12 -16 orbitofrontal area 13 Pre-therapy adults with persistent stuttering showed lower BOLD signal change in a comparison of overt to covert reading than did control subjects Kell et al 2009
Differences in BOLD activation level changes for overt vs. covert reading -14 6 -18 orbitofrontal area 13 Pre-therapy adults with persistent stuttering showed lower BOLD signal change in a comparison of overt to covert reading than did control subjects Kell et al 2009
Differences in BOLD activation level changes for overt vs. covert reading 46 22 10 anterior insula,  frontal operculum Pre-therapy adults with persistent stuttering showed greater BOLD signal change in a comparison of overt to covert reading than did control subjects Kell et al 2009
Differences in BOLD activation level changes for overt vs. covert reading 42 -14 -4 planum polare,  BA 52 Pre-therapy adults with persistent stuttering showed greater BOLD signal change in a comparison of overt to covert reading than did control subjects Kell et al 2009
Differences in BOLD activation level changes for overt vs. covert reading 34 -30 12 planum temporale,  primary auditory cortex Pre-therapy adults with persistent stuttering showed greater BOLD signal change in a comparison of overt to covert reading than did control subjects Kell et al 2009
Differences in BOLD activation level changes for overt vs. covert reading 50 -22 20 parietal operculum,  OP1 Pre-therapy adults with persistent stuttering showed greater BOLD signal change in a comparison of overt to covert reading than did control subjects Kell et al 2009
Differences in BOLD activation level changes for overt vs. covert reading - -32 38 posterior cingulate,  BA 31 Pre-therapy adults with persistent stuttering showed greater BOLD signal change in a comparison of overt to covert reading than did control subjects Kell et al 2009
Differences in BOLD activation level changes for overt vs. covert reading 56 -42 30 BA 40,  supramarginal gyrus Pre-therapy adults with persistent stuttering showed greater BOLD signal change in a comparison of overt to covert reading than did control subjects Kell et al 2009
Differences in BOLD activation level changes for overt vs. covert reading 46 -54 50 angular gyrus,  BA 39 Pre-therapy adults with persistent stuttering showed greater BOLD signal change in a comparison of overt to covert reading than did control subjects Kell et al 2009
Differences in BOLD activation level changes for overt vs. covert reading 46 -52 -36 cerebellum lobule I Pre-therapy adults with persistent stuttering showed lower BOLD signal change in a comparison of overt to covert reading than did control subjects Kell et al 2009
Differences in BOLD activation level changes for overt vs. covert reading 34 -62 -28 cerebellum lobule VI Pre-therapy adults with persistent stuttering showed lower BOLD signal change in a comparison of overt to covert reading than did control subjects Kell et al 2009
Differences in BOLD activation level changes for overt vs. covert reading 2 44 26 BA 8,  posterior frontomesial cortex Adults with persistent stuttering, after therapy, showed greater BOLD signal change in a comparison of overt to covert reading than did control subjects Kell et al 2009
Differences in BOLD activation level changes for overt vs. covert reading 2 30 48 BA 10,  posterior frontomesial cortex Adults with persistent stuttering, after therapy, showed greater BOLD signal change in a comparison of overt to covert reading than did control subjects Kell et al 2009
Differences in BOLD activation level changes for overt vs. covert reading -6 60 8 BA 10,  anterior frontomesial cortex Adults with persistent stuttering, after therapy, showed greater BOLD signal change in a comparison of overt to covert reading than did control subjects Kell et al 2009
Differences in BOLD activation level changes for overt vs. covert reading 32 18 -18 opercular orbitofrontal cortex,  BA 47/12 Adults with persistent stuttering, after therapy, showed greater BOLD signal change in a comparison of overt to covert reading than did control subjects Kell et al 2009
Differences in BOLD activation level changes for overt vs. covert reading -20 16 -14 orbitofrontal area 13 Adults with persistent stuttering, after therapy, showed lower BOLD signal change in a comparison of overt to covert reading than did control subjects Kell et al 2009
Differences in BOLD activation level changes for overt vs. covert reading 46 22 10 anterior insula,  frontal operculum Adults with persistent stuttering, after therapy, showed greater BOLD signal change in a comparison of overt to covert reading than did control subjects Kell et al 2009
Differences in BOLD activation level changes for overt vs. covert reading 40 -14 -8 planum polare,  BA 52 Adults with persistent stuttering, after therapy, showed greater BOLD signal change in a comparison of overt to covert reading than did control subjects Kell et al 2009
Differences in BOLD activation level changes for overt vs. covert reading -44 -32 16 planum temporale,  primary auditory cortex Adults with persistent stuttering, after therapy, showed greater BOLD signal change in a comparison of overt to covert reading than did control subjects Kell et al 2009
Differences in BOLD activation level changes for overt vs. covert reading - -32 38 posterior cingulate,  BA 31 Adults with persistent stuttering, after therapy, showed greater BOLD signal change in a comparison of overt to covert reading than did control subjects Kell et al 2009
Differences in BOLD activation level changes for overt vs. covert reading 2 -58 22 posterior cingulate,  BA 31 Adults with persistent stuttering, after therapy, showed greater BOLD signal change in a comparison of overt to covert reading than did control subjects Kell et al 2009
Differences in BOLD activation level changes for overt vs. covert reading -4 -48 24 posterior cingulate,  BA 31 Adults with persistent stuttering, after therapy, showed greater BOLD signal change in a comparison of overt to covert reading than did control subjects Kell et al 2009
Differences in BOLD activation level changes for overt vs. covert reading 2 -40 -10 vermis,  lobule III Adults with persistent stuttering, after therapy, showed greater BOLD signal change in a comparison of overt to covert reading than did control subjects Kell et al 2009
Differences in BOLD activation level changes for overt vs. covert reading -2 -60 -16 vermis,  lobule IV/V Adults with persistent stuttering, after therapy, showed lower BOLD signal change in a comparison of overt to covert reading than did control subjects Kell et al 2009
Differences in BOLD activation level changes for overt vs. covert reading 38 -62 -22 cerebellum lobule VI Adults with persistent stuttering, after therapy, showed lower BOLD signal change in a comparison of overt to covert reading than did control subjects Kell et al 2009
Differences in BOLD activation level changes for overt vs. covert reading -30 54 10 BA 10,  middle frontal gyrus Adults who had recovered from persistent stuttering showed greater BOLD signal change in a comparison of overt to covert reading than did control subjects Kell et al 2009
Differences in BOLD activation level changes for overt vs. covert reading -44 -16 52 precentral gyrus,  BA 4 Adults who had recovered from persistent stuttering showed greater BOLD signal change in a comparison of overt to covert reading than did control subjects Kell et al 2009
Differences in BOLD activation level changes for overt vs. covert reading -30 14 -28 opercular orbitofrontal cortex,  BA 47/12 Adults who had recovered from persistent stuttering showed greater BOLD signal change in a comparison of overt to covert reading than did control subjects Kell et al 2009
Differences in BOLD activation level changes for overt vs. covert reading 48 -28 12 planum temporale,  primary auditory cortex Adults who had recovered from persistent stuttering showed greater BOLD signal change in a comparison of overt to covert reading than did control subjects Kell et al 2009
Differences in BOLD activation level changes for overt vs. covert reading 22 -70 -18 cerebellum lobule I Adults who had recovered from persistent stuttering showed lower BOLD signal change in a comparison of overt to covert reading than did control subjects Kell et al 2009
Differences in BOLD activation level changes for overt vs. covert reading 28 -64 -28 cerebellum lobule VI Adults who had recovered from persistent stuttering showed lower BOLD signal change in a comparison of overt to covert reading than did control subjects Kell et al 2009
Differences in BOLD activation level changes for overt vs. covert reading -24 -74 -22 cerebellum lobule VI Adults who had recovered from persistent stuttering showed lower BOLD signal change in a comparison of overt to covert reading than did control subjects Kell et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during picture naming -26 60 25 BA 10,  superior frontal gyrus Adults who stutter showed increased BOLD activation relative to controls during a picture naming task Lu et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during picture naming 26 47 18 BA 10,  superior frontal gyrus Adults who stutter showed increased BOLD activation relative to controls during a picture naming task Lu et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during picture naming 33 -3 43 BA 6,  middle frontal gyrus Adults who stutter showed increased BOLD activation relative to controls during a picture naming task Lu et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during picture naming 5 25 46 BA 8,  medial frontal gyrus Adults who stutter showed increased BOLD activation relative to controls during a picture naming task Lu et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during picture naming 57 28 11 inferior frontal gyrus,  BA 45 Adults who stutter showed increased BOLD activation relative to controls during a picture naming task Lu et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during picture naming 33 -52 40 BA 40,  supramarginal gyrus Adults who stutter showed increased BOLD activation relative to controls during a picture naming task Lu et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during picture naming -45 -44 16 BA 22,  superior temporal gyrus Adults who stutter showed increased BOLD activation relative to controls during a picture naming task Lu et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during picture naming 34 20 11 insula,  BA 13 Adults who stutter showed increased BOLD activation relative to controls during a picture naming task Lu et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during picture naming -24 -3 9 putamen Adults who stutter showed increased BOLD activation relative to controls during a picture naming task Lu et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during picture naming -44 33 34 middle frontal gyrus,  BA 9 Adults who stutter showed decreased BOLD activation relative to controls during a picture naming task Lu et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during picture naming -49 -16 - BA 22,  superior temporal gyrus Adults who stutter showed decreased BOLD activation relative to controls during a picture naming task Lu et al 2009
BOLD activation differences during overt picture naming 20 37 36 superior frontal gyrus,  BA 9 Young adults who stutter showed increased activation relative to controls during an overt picture naming task (subjects were asked to speak with minimal mouth movement) Lu et al 2010
BOLD activation differences during overt picture naming -33 21 40 middle frontal gyrus,  BA 9 Young adults who stutter showed increased activation relative to controls during an overt picture naming task (subjects were asked to speak with minimal mouth movement) Lu et al 2010
BOLD activation differences during overt picture naming 31 - 49 BA 6,  middle frontal gyrus Young adults who stutter showed increased activation relative to controls during an overt picture naming task (subjects were asked to speak with minimal mouth movement) Lu et al 2010
BOLD activation differences during overt picture naming -12 1 56 BA 6,  medial frontal gyrus Young adults who stutter showed increased activation relative to controls during an overt picture naming task (subjects were asked to speak with minimal mouth movement) Lu et al 2010
BOLD activation differences during overt picture naming 12 6 53 BA 6,  medial frontal gyrus Young adults who stutter showed increased activation relative to controls during an overt picture naming task (subjects were asked to speak with minimal mouth movement) Lu et al 2010
BOLD activation differences during overt picture naming 7 30 37 BA 6,  medial frontal gyrus Young adults who stutter showed increased activation relative to controls during an overt picture naming task (subjects were asked to speak with minimal mouth movement) Lu et al 2010
BOLD activation differences during overt picture naming 49 5 24 inferior frontal gyrus,  BA 44 Young adults who stutter showed increased activation relative to controls during an overt picture naming task (subjects were asked to speak with minimal mouth movement) Lu et al 2010
BOLD activation differences during overt picture naming 41 33 7 inferior frontal gyrus,  BA 46 Young adults who stutter showed increased activation relative to controls during an overt picture naming task (subjects were asked to speak with minimal mouth movement) Lu et al 2010
BOLD activation differences during overt picture naming -35 -5 50 BA 6,  precentral gyrus Young adults who stutter showed increased activation relative to controls during an overt picture naming task (subjects were asked to speak with minimal mouth movement) Lu et al 2010
BOLD activation differences during overt picture naming -56 -26 39 postcentral gyrus,  BA 1 Young adults who stutter showed increased activation relative to controls during an overt picture naming task (subjects were asked to speak with minimal mouth movement) Lu et al 2010
BOLD activation differences during overt picture naming 54 -28 39 postcentral gyrus,  BA 2 Young adults who stutter showed increased activation relative to controls during an overt picture naming task (subjects were asked to speak with minimal mouth movement) Lu et al 2010
BOLD activation differences during overt picture naming 62 -29 6 superior temporal gyrus,  BA 42 Young adults who stutter showed increased activation relative to controls during an overt picture naming task (subjects were asked to speak with minimal mouth movement) Lu et al 2010
BOLD activation differences during overt picture naming -52 -50 6 BA 22,  middle temporal gyrus Young adults who stutter showed increased activation relative to controls during an overt picture naming task (subjects were asked to speak with minimal mouth movement) Lu et al 2010
BOLD activation differences during overt picture naming 43 -6 -4 insula,  BA 13 Young adults who stutter showed increased activation relative to controls during an overt picture naming task (subjects were asked to speak with minimal mouth movement) Lu et al 2010
BOLD activation differences during overt picture naming 35 19 7 insula,  BA 13 Young adults who stutter showed increased activation relative to controls during an overt picture naming task (subjects were asked to speak with minimal mouth movement) Lu et al 2010
BOLD activation differences during overt picture naming -25 -3 14 putamen Young adults who stutter showed increased activation relative to controls during an overt picture naming task (subjects were asked to speak with minimal mouth movement) Lu et al 2010
BOLD activation differences during overt picture naming 27 2 14 putamen Young adults who stutter showed increased activation relative to controls during an overt picture naming task (subjects were asked to speak with minimal mouth movement) Lu et al 2010
BOLD activation differences during overt picture naming 23 -51 -38 cerebellar tonsil Young adults who stutter showed increased activation relative to controls during an overt picture naming task (subjects were asked to speak with minimal mouth movement) Lu et al 2010
BOLD activation differences during overt picture naming -34 - -13 superior temporal gyrus,  BA 38 Young adults who stutter showed decreased activation relative to controls during an overt picture naming task (subjects were asked to speak with minimal mouth movement) Lu et al 2010
BOLD activation differences during overt picture naming -26 -26 -1 thalamus Young adults who stutter showed decreased activation relative to controls during an overt picture naming task (subjects were asked to speak with minimal mouth movement) Lu et al 2010
Gray Matter Morphometry differences 8 -10 56 medial frontal gyrus Young adults who stutter had an increase in gray matter volume concentration in this area relative to controls Lu et al 2010
Gray Matter Morphometry differences 7 7 44 medial frontal gyrus Young adults who stutter had an increase in gray matter volume concentration in this area relative to controls Lu et al 2010
Gray Matter Morphometry differences -50 -3 36 precentral gyrus Young adults who stutter had an increase in gray matter volume concentration in this area relative to controls Lu et al 2010
Gray Matter Morphometry differences 34 -10 51 precentral gyrus Young adults who stutter had an increase in gray matter volume concentration in this area relative to controls Lu et al 2010
Gray Matter Morphometry differences -32 -46 56 superior parietal lobule Young adults who stutter had an increase in gray matter volume concentration in this area relative to controls Lu et al 2010
Gray Matter Morphometry differences -11 -40 60 paracentral lobule Young adults who stutter had an increase in gray matter volume concentration in this area relative to controls Lu et al 2010
Gray Matter Morphometry differences 44 -54 -7 fusiform gyrus Young adults who stutter had an increase in gray matter volume concentration in this area relative to controls Lu et al 2010
Gray Matter Morphometry differences -14 -92 12 middle occipital gyrus Young adults who stutter had an increase in gray matter volume concentration in this area relative to controls Lu et al 2010
Gray Matter Morphometry differences -9 -27 45 cingulate gyrus Young adults who stutter had an increase in gray matter volume concentration in this area relative to controls Lu et al 2010
Gray Matter Morphometry differences 7 -18 32 cingulate gyrus Young adults who stutter had an increase in gray matter volume concentration in this area relative to controls Lu et al 2010
Gray Matter Morphometry differences -29 -9 - putamen Young adults who stutter had an increase in gray matter volume concentration in this area relative to controls Lu et al 2010
Gray Matter Morphometry differences -2 38 49 superior frontal gyrus Young adults who stutter had a decrease in gray matter volume concentration in this area relative to controls Lu et al 2010
Gray Matter Morphometry differences -1 52 6 medial frontal gyrus Young adults who stutter had a decrease in gray matter volume concentration in this area relative to controls Lu et al 2010
Gray Matter Morphometry differences -1 40 -14 medial frontal gyrus Young adults who stutter had a decrease in gray matter volume concentration in this area relative to controls Lu et al 2010
Gray Matter Morphometry differences 4 40 29 medial frontal gyrus Young adults who stutter had a decrease in gray matter volume concentration in this area relative to controls Lu et al 2010
Gray Matter Morphometry differences -65 -6 -1 superior temporal gyrus Young adults who stutter had a decrease in gray matter volume concentration in this area relative to controls Lu et al 2010
Gray Matter Morphometry differences 47 -54 7 middle temporal gyrus Young adults who stutter had a decrease in gray matter volume concentration in this area relative to controls Lu et al 2010
Gray Matter Morphometry differences 10 -50 -32 cerebellar tonsil Young adults who stutter had a decrease in gray matter volume concentration in this area relative to controls Lu et al 2010
Gray Matter Morphometry differences 34 -59 -16 declive Young adults who stutter had a decrease in gray matter volume concentration in this area relative to controls Lu et al 2010
Gray Matter Morphometry differences 3 -63 -5 culmen of vermis Young adults who stutter had a decrease in gray matter volume concentration in this area relative to controls Lu et al 2010
White Matter Morphometry differences 22 55 32 superior frontal gyrus Young adults who stutter had an increase in white matter volume concentration underlying this area relative to controls Lu et al 2010
White Matter Morphometry differences -22 -51 45 precuneus Young adults who stutter had an increase in white matter volume concentration underlying this area relative to controls Lu et al 2010
White Matter Morphometry differences 62 -16 -22 inferior temporal gyrus Young adults who stutter had an increase in white matter volume concentration underlying this area relative to controls Lu et al 2010
White Matter Morphometry differences 50 -54 5 middle temporal gyrus Young adults who stutter had an increase in white matter volume concentration underlying this area relative to controls Lu et al 2010
White Matter Morphometry differences -24 -88 -21 declive Young adults who stutter had an increase in white matter volume concentration underlying this area relative to controls Lu et al 2010
White Matter Morphometry differences 34 -10 53 precentral gyrus Young adults who stutter had a decrease in white matter volume concentration underlying this area relative to controls Lu et al 2010
White Matter Morphometry differences -44 -25 8 suprior temporal gyrus Young adults who stutter had a decrease in white matter volume concentration underlying this area relative to controls Lu et al 2010
White Matter Morphometry differences -46 -52 -14 fusiform gyrus Young adults who stutter had a decrease in white matter volume concentration underlying this area relative to controls Lu et al 2010
White Matter Morphometry differences 45 -54 -9 fusiform gyrus Young adults who stutter had a decrease in white matter volume concentration underlying this area relative to controls Lu et al 2010
White Matter Morphometry differences -4 -87 -15 lingual gyrus Young adults who stutter had a decrease in white matter volume concentration underlying this area relative to controls Lu et al 2010
White Matter Morphometry differences -27 -76 -29 tuber Young adults who stutter had a decrease in white matter volume concentration underlying this area relative to controls Lu et al 2010
White Matter Morphometry differences 24 -60 -39 cerebellar tonsil Young adults who stutter had a decrease in white matter volume concentration underlying this area relative to controls Lu et al 2010
White Matter Morphometry differences 31 -77 -31 pyramis Young adults who stutter had a decrease in white matter volume concentration underlying this area relative to controls Lu et al 2010
BOLD activation differences during reading aloud 60 2 30 precentral frontal,  BA 6 Increased BOLD activation in PWS compared to controls during reading aloud (uncorrected random effects analysis) Preibisch et al 2003
BOLD activation differences during reading aloud 28 -12 64 precentral frontal,  BA 6 Increased BOLD activation in PWS compared to controls during reading aloud (uncorrected random effects analysis) Preibisch et al 2003
BOLD activation differences during reading aloud 18 24 52 superior frontal,  BA 8 Increased BOLD activation in PWS compared to controls during reading aloud (uncorrected random effects analysis) Preibisch et al 2003
BOLD activation differences during reading aloud 28 8 42 BA 6,  middle frontal Increased BOLD activation in PWS compared to controls during reading aloud (uncorrected random effects analysis) Preibisch et al 2003
BOLD activation differences during reading aloud 36 12 48 BA 6,  middle frontal Increased BOLD activation in PWS compared to controls during reading aloud (uncorrected random effects analysis) Preibisch et al 2003
BOLD activation differences during reading aloud 36 54 14 middle frontal,  BA 10 Increased BOLD activation in PWS compared to controls during reading aloud (uncorrected random effects analysis) Preibisch et al 2003
BOLD activation differences during reading aloud 36 18 -16 inferior frontal,  BA 47 Increased BOLD activation in PWS compared to controls during reading aloud. Increased right inferior frontal activation appears to be the strongest finding, passing multiple statistical tests. This right inferior frontal region was also overactivated in PWS during a semantic decision task Preibisch et al 2003
BOLD activation differences during reading aloud 44 -8 16 insula,  BA 13 Increased BOLD activation in PWS compared to controls during reading aloud (uncorrected random effects analysis) Preibisch et al 2003
BOLD activation differences during reading aloud -4 -6 30 cingulate gyrus,  BA 24 Increased BOLD activation in PWS compared to controls during reading aloud (uncorrected random effects analysis) Preibisch et al 2003
BOLD activation differences during reading aloud 54 4 2 superior temporal,  BA 22 Increased BOLD activation in PWS compared to controls during reading aloud (uncorrected random effects analysis) Preibisch et al 2003
BOLD activation differences during reading aloud 36 -42 54 intraparietal sulcus,  BA 40 Increased BOLD activation in PWS compared to controls during reading aloud (uncorrected random effects analysis) Preibisch et al 2003
BOLD activation differences during reading aloud 24 -42 58 intraparietal sulcus,  BA 40 Increased BOLD activation in PWS compared to controls during reading aloud (uncorrected random effects analysis) Preibisch et al 2003
BOLD activation differences during reading aloud -30 -42 60 intraparietal sulcus,  BA 40 Increased BOLD activation in PWS compared to controls during reading aloud (uncorrected random effects analysis) Preibisch et al 2003
BOLD activation differences during reading aloud - -60 4 posterior cingulate,  BA 30 Decreased BOLD activation in PWS compared to controls during reading aloud (uncorrected random effects analysis) Preibisch et al 2003
BOLD activation differences during reading aloud -10 -48 -6 lingual occipital,  BA 19 Decreased BOLD activation in PWS compared to controls during reading aloud (uncorrected random effects analysis) Preibisch et al 2003
BOLD activation differences during speech production with feedback -54 2 24 ventral premotor cortex Young people who stutter showed reduced BOLD activation in left ventral premotor cortex compared to controls during a speech production task, across three feedback conditions (normal, delayed, and frequency-shifted) Watkins et al 2008
BOLD activation differences during speech production with feedback 66 2 16 ventral premotor cortex Young people who stutter showed reduced BOLD activation in right ventral premotor cortex / central operculum compared to controls during a speech production task, across three feedback conditions (normal, delayed, and frequency-shifted) Watkins et al 2008
BOLD activation differences during speech production with feedback -48 -16 46 sensorimotor cortex Young people who stutter showed reduced BOLD activation in the approximate face area of left sensorimotor cortex compared to controls during a speech production task, across three feedback conditions (normal, delayed, and frequency-shifted) Watkins et al 2008
BOLD activation differences during speech production with feedback 44 -10 44 sensorimotor cortex Young people who stutter showed reduced BOLD activation in the approximate face area of right sensorimotor cortex compared to controls during a speech production task, across three feedback conditions (normal, delayed, and frequency-shifted) Watkins et al 2008
BOLD activation differences during speech production with feedback -48 -10 6 Heschl's gyrus Young people who stutter showed reduced BOLD activation in left anteromedial portion of Heschl's gyrus compared to controls during a speech production task, across three feedback conditions (normal, delayed, and frequency-shifted) Watkins et al 2008
BOLD activation differences during speech production with feedback -10 28 26 cingulate sulcus Young people who stutter showed increased BOLD activation in left cingulate sulcus compared to controls during a speech production task, across three feedback conditions (normal, delayed, and frequency-shifted) Watkins et al 2008
BOLD activation differences during speech production with feedback 30 16 10 anterior insula Young people who stutter showed increased BOLD activation in right anterior insula (dorsal) extending into putamen compared to controls during a speech production task, across three feedback conditions (normal, delayed, and frequency-shifted) Watkins et al 2008
BOLD activation differences during speech production with feedback -34 12 14 anterior insula Young people who stutter showed increased BOLD activation in left anterior insula compared to controls during a speech production task, across three feedback conditions (normal, delayed, and frequency-shifted) Watkins et al 2008
BOLD activation differences during speech production with feedback 32 14 -14 anterior insula Young people who stutter showed increased BOLD activation in the ventral portions of the right anterior insula compared to controls during a speech production task, across three feedback conditions (normal, delayed, and frequency-shifted) Watkins et al 2008
BOLD activation differences during speech production with feedback -8 -20 -10 midbrain Young people who stutter showed increased BOLD activation in the midbrain, with peaks bilaterally at the level of the substantia nigra, but encompassing also the pedunculopontine nucleus, subthalamic nucleus and red nucleus, compared to controls during a speech production task, across three feedback conditions (normal, delayed, and frequency-shifted) Watkins et al 2008
BOLD activation differences during speech production with feedback 6 -18 -12 midbrain Young people who stutter showed increased BOLD activation in the midbrain, with peaks bilaterally at the level of the substantia nigra, but encompassing also the pedunculopontine nucleus, subthalamic nucleus and red nucleus, compared to controls during a speech production task, across three feedback conditions (normal, delayed, and frequency-shifted) Watkins et al 2008
BOLD activation differences during speech production with feedback -6 -68 -48 posterior lobe of cerebellum Young people who stutter showed increased BOLD activation in the left posterior lobe of the cerebellum compared to controls during a speech production task, across three feedback conditions (normal, delayed, and frequency-shifted) Watkins et al 2008
BOLD activation differences during speech production with feedback 8 -68 -48 posterior lobe of cerebellum Young people who stutter showed increased BOLD activation in the right posterior lobe of the cerebellum compared to controls during a speech production task, across three feedback conditions (normal, delayed, and frequency-shifted) Watkins et al 2008
White Matter Fractional Anisotropy differences 47 36 -10 inferior frontal gyrus pars orbitalis Young people who stutter showed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in underlying white matter than controls Watkins et al 2008
White Matter Fractional Anisotropy differences -43 25 14 inferior frontal gyrus Young people who stutter showed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in underlying white matter than controls Watkins et al 2008
White Matter Fractional Anisotropy differences 44 20 12 inferior frontal gyrus Young people who stutter showed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in underlying white matter than controls Watkins et al 2008
White Matter Fractional Anisotropy differences 59 7 33 precentral gyrus Young people who stutter showed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in underlying white matter than controls Watkins et al 2008
White Matter Fractional Anisotropy differences -51 4 13 precentral gyrus Young people who stutter showed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in underlying white matter than controls Watkins et al 2008
White Matter Fractional Anisotropy differences -54 - 20 ventral premotor cortex Young people who stutter showed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in underlying white matter than controls Watkins et al 2008
White Matter Fractional Anisotropy differences 17 -15 -8 corticospinal tract (top of the midbrain) Young people who stutter showed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in underlying white matter than controls Watkins et al 2008
White Matter Fractional Anisotropy differences 46 -46 28 supramarginal gyrus,  angular gyus Young people who stutter showed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in underlying white matter than controls Watkins et al 2008
White Matter Fractional Anisotropy differences -40 -56 40 supramarginal gyrus Young people who stutter showed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in underlying white matter than controls Watkins et al 2008
White Matter Fractional Anisotropy differences -6 -37 -34 dorsal pons,  medial lemniscus Young people who stutter showed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in underlying white matter than controls Watkins et al 2008
White Matter Fractional Anisotropy differences 5 -37 -36 dorsal pons,  medial lemniscus Young people who stutter showed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in underlying white matter than controls Watkins et al 2008
White Matter Fractional Anisotropy differences 13 -42 -38 middle cerebellar peduncle Young people who stutter showed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in underlying white matter than controls Watkins et al 2008
White Matter Fractional Anisotropy differences 36 -49 -30 anterior cerebellar lobe Young people who stutter showed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in underlying white matter than controls Watkins et al 2008
White Matter Fractional Anisotropy differences -21 -63 -39 posterior cerebellar lobe Young people who stutter showed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in underlying white matter than controls Watkins et al 2008
White Matter Fractional Anisotropy differences 27 -67 -37 posterior cerebellar lobe Young people who stutter showed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in underlying white matter than controls Watkins et al 2008
White Matter Fractional Anisotropy differences -47 24 4 inferior frontal gyrus Young people who stutter showed higher fractional anisotropy (FA) in underlying white matter than controls Watkins et al 2008
White Matter Fractional Anisotropy differences 45 -19 44 postcentral gyrus Young people who stutter showed higher fractional anisotropy (FA) in underlying white matter than controls Watkins et al 2008
White Matter Fractional Anisotropy differences 45 -37 35 supramarginal gyrus Young people who stutter showed higher fractional anisotropy (FA) in underlying white matter than controls Watkins et al 2008